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Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)

HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a systematic approach to food safety that focuses on preventing contamination from biological, chemical, physical and radiological hazards using common sense application of scientific principles.

It is accepted worldwide as a suitable system for ensuring food safety and is a legal requirement or recommended for food business in most developed countries.

Examples of hazards assessed by an HACCP system include:

  • Biological - microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, yeasts, molds, parasites and pathogens
  • Chemical - processor receiving product, processing equipment, substances
  • Physical - hard or sharp items and foreign materials

What is HACCP?

HACCP is used at all stages of food production, from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product.

Each food processing or handling business should develop an HACCP system or equivalents and tailor one to its individual product, processing and distribution conditions.

An HACCP system is reliant on facilities, equipment and good practices already being in place to keep the analysis and resulting control methods manageable.

It also relies on the motivation of managers and employees to reduce risk factors and ensure good practices are regularly maintained. These are called prerequisite programs.

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A food business should first develop and implement the facilities and procedures that establish basic food safety conditions and provide the foundation for a food safety management system.

The ability to implement an HACCP plan depends on how well these foundations are built and maintained.

A prerequisite programme can include:

  • vendor certification programs;
  • training programs;
  • allergen management;
  • buyer specifications;
  • recipe/process instructions;
  • first-in-first-out (FIFO) procedures;
  • standard operating procedures (SOPs) to protect products from contamination by biological, chemical and physical food safety hazards and control bacterial growth;
  • standard operating procedures for maintaining equipment.

Business advantages of HACCP

Implementation of HACCP benefits both the consumer and the business processing or preparing food. The FDA lists the following advantages for businesses:

  • reduction in product loss;
  • increase in product quality;
  • better control of product inventory;
  • consistency in product preparation;
  • increase in profit; and
  • increase in employee awareness and participation in food safety.

Adherence to HACCP principles also opens new markets for businesses in supplying companies requiring high quality products and in international trade where compliance with internationally recognised standards is required.

Application of HACCP

There is no single correct application of HACCP and it is recognised that it should be flexible to apply to different types and size of business.

The Malaysian Certification Scheme for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system was developed to provide a uniform certification scheme for HACCP system in food industries. The scheme consists of certification and surveillance activities of the HACCP system and provides formal recognition to food premises that have effectively implemented the HACCP system. With the introduction of the scheme, the Ministry of Health (MOH) hopes to encourage the implementation of HACCP system in food industries in line with global trends in food safety.

But whichever system is used, the ultimate responsibility for food safety resides with the business processing or preparing food.


An HACCP system is applied in a logical sequence with a set of preparation stages:

  1. Assemble the HACCP team. The appropriate knowledge and expertise should be made available by assembling a multidisciplinary team from onsite or offsite sources that can develop an HACCP plan.
  2. Describe the product, including its composition, physical and chemical structure, packaging, durability, storage conditions and distribution methods.
  3. Identify intended use by the end user or consumer.
  4. Construct a flow diagram covering all steps in the processing of a specific product.
  5. Confirm the flow diagram onsite.
  6. List all potential hazards associated with each step, conduct a hazard analysis and consider measures to control the hazards.

Seven principles of HACCP

There are seven principles recognised in an HACCP system:

1. Conduct a hazard analysis

This lists all the hazards that may occur at each step from primary production, manufacture, and distribution until the point of consumption. It assesses the likely occurrence of hazards and severity of their adverse health effects

2. Identify critical control points (CCPs)

Identify which steps in the process are needed to ensure food safety and if a control measure is missing modify the process to include a control measure.

3. Establish critical limits for CCPs

Each critical control point must have validated measurable limits that define boundaries to ensure food safety. One CCP can have more than one limit, for example, temperature, moisture level, pH, time.

4. Establish monitoring procedures

Monitoring involves scheduled measurement or observation of a CCP that can detect a process moving outside the critical limits. Ideally it should enable action to be taken before a critical limit is reached. Measurements often have to be rapid therefore physical and chemical measurements are usually preferred.

5. Establish corrective actions

There should be plans for corrective action to be taken for when CCPs are breaching limits and staff should be ready and trained to implement them.

6. Establish verification procedures

Verification procedures confirm that all elements of the systems of hazard control are working effectively. It includes review of the HACCP plan and records; review of deviations and product dispositions; confirmation that CCPs are controlled.

7. Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures

An effective HACCP system requires efficient and accurate record keeping and documentation to show that the system is active and effective. This includes the HACCP plan itself and any monitoring, corrective action or calibration records produced in the operation of the HACCP system.


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